Ziprasidone is a typical antipsychotic agent. Two simple, sensitive and accurate spectrophotometric methods have been developed for the determination of Ziprasidone hydrochloride (ZPD) in pure state and in its pharmaceutical formulations. The developed Method A is based on the reaction of the drug with 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone in the presence of ferric chloride to form a colored species with ëmax 640 nm and Linearity in the range of 8-56 ìg/mL. Method B involves ion association complex formation of the drug with Methyl Orange. The developed chromogen in Method B shows maximum absorption at ëmax 420 nm and Linearity in the range of 3-15 ìg/mL. The results obtained were statistically evaluated and were found to be accurate and reproducible.
In recent years, polyanilines have been reported as one of the efficient corrosion inhibitors for iron in acidic media. A conducting polymer composite polyethylene glycol aniline polymer was prepared via chemical method. The corrosion inhibition of polyethylene glycol aniline composite on mild steel in 1.0N HCl has been evaluated by potentiodynamic polarisation, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and weight loss measurements. The characterisation of the composite is done by FTIR. The inhibition efficiencies of these polymers increase with increasing concentration and immersion time. The electrochemical studies indicated the mixed nature of the composite. Results obtained from the chemical and electrochemical measurements are in good agreements.
A new Araldite matrix membrane electrode for Cu2+ and Ni2+ ion based on their Barium dichromate as membrane carrier as prepared. The Nernstian response for Cu2+ and Ni2+ ion over a wide concentration range of (1M-1x10-5 M) with detection limits of the order of 10-5 M. The response time of the sensor is 40 seconds for Cu2+ Ions and 52 seconds for Ni 2+ ions and membrane can be used for more than six month without observing any deviation. The proposed membrane sensor shows excellent discriminating ability towards Cu2+ and Ni2+ ions in comparison to several alkali, alkaline earth, transition and heavy metal ions. The effect of pH and effect of medium, selectivity co-efficient values have been found to give better responses.
Key words: Nickel (II). , .
Onion leaves were procured from different fields located near Nallahs (drains) and concentrations (in mg/kg of dry weight) of chromium, cadmium and lead were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Twenty samples were collected from different study and controlled sites in Jodhpur for analysis. It was found that in the study sites chromium, cadmium and lead were in the range 2.836-4.546(mg/kg); 0.421-0.772(mg/kg) and 10.190-13.831(mg/kg) respectively. Controlled sites showed the results 0.214-O.249; 0.132-0.179 and 2.137-2.691 mg/kg for chromium, cadmium and lead respectively. In both study and controlled sites abundance trend followed the order Pb>Cr>Cd. Analysis revealed that except for cadmium higher concentrations of these heavy metals were found in onion leaves procured from health sites in comparison to WHO/EU recommendations. The high level of these trace metals suggest that the fields irrigated by effluent water showed the bioaccumulation of these heavy metals in the leaves, hence putting consumer of this crop at a very high risk.
The kinetics of oxidation of DL- Aspartic Acid by Chromic Acid has been studied in the presence of Sulphuric Acid at 29oC. The reaction follows first order kinetics with respect to each [DL-Aspartic Acid], [Chromic Acid] and [H+]. Oswald isolation method is used for study of rate of reaction. With increase in the concentration of Sulphuric Acid the rate constant of the system increased. The probable products are acetaldehyde, CO2 and ammonia. A tentative mechanism involving C-C bond fission based on experimental observations has been proposed. The rate constant, catalytic constant, dielectric constant, pH value and temperature coefficient have been determined for all the runs. A mechanism consistent with results obtained has been proposed with the following rate equation:
d [Cr (VI)] / dt = k [Cr (VI) ] [DL-Aspartic Acid] [H+]
A new Araldite matrix membrane electrode for Cu2+ and Ni2+ ion based on their Barium dichromate as membrane carrier as prepared. The Nernstian response for Cu2+ and Ni2+ ion over a wide concentration range of (1M-1x10-5M) with detection limits of the order of 10-5 M. The response time of the sensor is 40 seconds for Cu2+Ions and 52 seconds for Ni 2+ ions and membrane can be used for more than six month without observing any deviation. The proposed membrane sensor shows excellent discriminating ability towards Cu2+ and Ni2+ ions in comparison to several alkali, alkaline earth, transition and heavy metal ions. The effect of pH and effect of medium, selectivity co-efficient values have been found to give better responses.
Single crystals of rare-earth selenate-selenite of composition: Nd2(SeO4)2(SeO 3) (H2O) was obtained by interaction of amine-selenate monohydrate [NH3(CH2)2NH 2(CH2)2 NH2(CH2)2NH3 ]0.5[SeO4] .H2O with Nd3+ ions followed by hydrothermal processing at 150oC. The material crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21/c with the following cell parameters: a = 10.608(2), b = 13.951(3), c = 9.799(3)Å, â= 93.12(2)o. The infrared spectrum clearly shows the presence of coordinated water molecule. The absorption bands at 3508cm-1 and 3348cm-1 corresponds respectively to asymmetric and symmetric stretching vibrational modes of ligated water molecule. The absorption band at 1630cm-1 is attributed to the bending vibrational mode of the aqua ligand. The absorption bands at 878, 913 and 962cm-1 are assigned to õ(Se-O) vibrations. The material is stable up to 180oC. The first weight loss of 2.64% (Calc 2.56%) in the region 180-250oC is indicative of the removal of one molecule of coordinated water. The second weight loss of 16.66 %(Calc16. 23 %) in the region 600-650oC corresponds to the loss of SeO2.
Dye stuff production units have always had a pressing need for techniques that allow economical pretreatment for color in the effluent. Reactive black 5 dye (RB5), a remazol type dye, used in various industries has eco-toxic hazardous effects and is a major cause of pollution in waste water system.
In this study fly ash from coal burning power plant was activated chemically, used as a low cost adsorbent for the removal of reactive black 5 dye. The activated fly ash was characterized by XRD. Results showed that activated fly ash due to increased amorphous property possesses more activity over surface to act as a suitable adsorbent for the removal of dye waste from industrial effluents. The adsorption kinetics is well represented by first order kinetic model.
Studies on the synthesis, composition and ion exchange properties of Bismuth (III) iodoantimonate have been carried out. This exchanger is stable in water, ethanol, acetic acid, HCl (2m), HNO3 (2m), H2SO4 (2m), NH4No3 (1M) and in solutions of LiCl, NaCl, KCl, BaCl2, SrCl2 and Mg SO4. it can be regenerated twice without any appreciable decrease in the ion exchange capacity. The empirical formula proposed is ½ Bi2O3. ½ I2 O5. ½ Sb2O3. 3H2O or Bi2O3. I2O5 . Sb2O3. 6 H2O. Bi : I : Sb ratio was calculated from titrimetric and gravimetric analysis. Bismuth (III) iodoantimonate shows high affinity for Pb (II), Cd (II), Cu (II), CO (II) and Ni(II). Five binary separations ranging from 96 to 98% have been achieved on Bismuth (III) iodoantimonate columns.
Ground water samples of Rampur city have been collected either from the bore wells(from the part of municipal water supply) or from the hand pumps (direct consumption were analyzed for fluoride in Rampur city (India). The result indicates considerable variations among the analyzed ground water samples and the concentration of fluoride ranged from 0.88 to 4.75 mg/l. In most of the ground water samples the concentration of fluoride was found to be moderately higher when compared to WHO standard for drinking water which may leads to associated health risks in urban population if the ground water is being used without proper treatment. Further it is suggested that the sources of municipal water supply must be establish in a region where an adequate level of fluoride was observed.