The renovation of eggshell wastage into nanocrystalline CaO by solution combustion method under microwave irradiation is vital process. Microwaves influenced to get high surface area, increase in active sites density with morphological difference than the conventional calcinations method. Accordingly various types of catalysts from egg shells such as CaO-M (microwave combustion), CaO-F (combustion in furnace), CaO-C (calcinations of waste egg shells) were synthesized. The obtained catalyst were characterized using XRD, SEM, TPD-CO2, TGA and BET surface area instruments to know the physico-chemical characteristics. The catalytic evolution of these catalysts showed record activity and recyclability at lower temperature for the glycerol carbonate synthesis under the microwave irradiation method. Under the optimize reaction condition CaO-M showed maximum yield of glycerol carbonate of 94%. Thereby catalytic activity of CaO-M showed better performance when compared with CaO-F, CaO-C and commercially obtained CaO. Better catalytic activity of CaO-M is due to higher surface area with lower particle size and increase in active sites. CaO-C showed decreased in activity due to mask of active sited by CO2. The term active site approach was coined; this concept is to develop the catalysts for the industrial applications. Accordingly, various factors such as surface area, particle size and active sites were compared and correlated with the yield of glycerol carbonate. The distribution of active sites on the each nano particle confirms more activity for CaO-M of 93%. and the r value 0.97 showed better correlation within active site approach influence on the product formation.
Structural studies of highly viscous liquids are most attracting for several industrial significances. Hydrogen bonding and physicochemical properties (PCP) are critical probe for structural interactions. Thus density ( ± 10-3 kg m-3), viscosity (± 10-4 mPa.S), surface tension (γ ± 0.01 mNm-1) and friccohesity (± 10-6 sm-1) for aniline (Anl) + glycerol (Grl) [AG], Anl + ethanol (Et) [AE], ortho-Anl + Et [OAE], para-Anl + Et [PAE] binary and Anl + Et + Grl [AEG], o-Anl + Et + Grl [OAEG] and p-Anl + Et + Grl [PAEG] ternary mixtures for entire compositions are reported at 293.15 K. The Anl was soluble in Grl but the OA and PA were not soluble, thereby, the Et was added to solubilize them and noted as interlocutoror hydrogen bond disruptor. The , η, and were regressed with the Grl mole fractions (xG) for their 0, η0, 0 and 0 limiting data with S, S, S and S slope values. The 0 as Grl > AEG >AG > PAEG > OAEG inferred stronger interactions with AEG and AG while the weaker with OAEG. The 0 as AEG >AG > OAEG > PAEG inferred hydrogen bonding (HB) disruption respectively as compared to Grl and decreases the resistance to flow. Their 0 as Grl >AEG >AG > OAEG > PAEG weakened 21.60, 33.40, 71.32 and 76.10% cohesive forces (CF) respectively and quantitatively the CF was demonstrated with proposed Spring-Weight (SW) model.
Food waste collected in the Akouedo landfill, Côte d’Ivoire, is characterized for its potential for use as a feedstock for anaerobic digestion processes. The biogas yield of the food waste is evaluated using batch anaerobic digestion tests performed at 37°C. It is determined to be 2259 mL (282 mL/g VS) after 45 days of digestion. The results of this study indicate that the food waste from Akouedo landfill is a highly desirable substrate for anaerobic digesters with regards to its high biodegradability and biogas yield.